Posts tagged with Europe

Winthrop also subscribed to the belief that the native peoples who lived in the hinterlands around the colony had been struck down by G-d, who sent disease among them because of their non-Christian beliefs:

“But for the natives in these parts, God hath so pursued them, as for 300 miles space the greatest part of them are swept away by smallpox which still continues among them. So as G-d hath thereby cleared our title to this place…”

New World Encyclopedia, via MRU

(search pictures of smallpox only if you have a strong stomach)




Ghent, East Flanders

hi-res




What is Eastern Europe? How did places like Gepidia, Nitra, Great Moravia, the Avar Khaganate, Habsburgia, Pannonia, Thrace, Dacia, Moesia, nomadic Göktürks under the Rouran Khaganate, Dalmatia, Cimmeria, Anatolia, the Great Seljuq Empire, Corinth, Onoghuria, Scythia, Syrmia, Vojvodina, Bulgaria, Carpathia, Illyria, Hamangia, Bosnia, Budim, Egri, Sigetvar, Temeşvar, Pomorje, Serbia, Arduba, Daorson, Ošanićia, Sarmatia, Čapljina, Ardea, Neretva, and Ossetia, in the middle of a continent that became socially dominated in the later half of the 2nd millennium A.D. by residents of its western islands and peninsulas, come to be seen as a “unified group” so that when an American visits Bratislava he expects something similar to Bucharest?

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Austria-Hungary_map.svg/1000px-Austria-Hungary_map.svg.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bc/Cucuteni-Tripol%27ye_Culture_Outline_Map.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e0/Drau_river.PNG

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ac/East_Roman.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bb/Roman_Empire_125.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e3/Map_of_Serbia_%28Vojvodina%29.PNG

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e2/Avars.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ea/RomaniaBorderHistoryAnnimation_1859-2010.gif

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5a/Teritoriul_onomastic_al_elementului_dava_-_Sorin_Olteanu.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0f/Romania_general_map.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d5/Pontic_steppe_region_around_650_AD.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/66/State_of_Cuman-Kipchak_%2813.%29_tr.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e4/Serbia_mountain_ranges.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ee/Serbia_regions.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f7/Serbia_and_Vojvodina_1848.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/96/Vojvodina_municipalities_map.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/Vojvodina_gradovi.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Vojvodina_languages2002.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/01/Carpathian_Basin-Pannonian_Basin.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ad/Serbia_in_the_Yugoslav_Wars.pnghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ad/Serbia_in_the_Yugoslav_Wars.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ab/G%C3%B6kturksAD551-572.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5d/Central_europe_1683.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/Pannonian_Basin.svg/1000px-Pannonian_Basin.svg.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/Satellite_image_of_Romania_in_December_2001.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/03/Regiuni_de_dezvoltare.svg/1000px-Regiuni_de_dezvoltare.svg.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8e/Growth_of_Habsburg_territories.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a2/Habsbourg-1700.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/86/Europe_As_A_Queen_Sebastian_Munster_1570.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5d/Map_of_the_Kingdom_of_Croatia-Slavonia_%281885%29.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Slovakia_topo.jpg

Anne Applebaum’s answer is that the present categorisation was essentially shaped by the USSR, a political powerhouse in Eurasia during the 20th century.

 

bonus: from Wikipedia, here are some notable biomes in the middle of the Eurasian supercontinent.

the steppe:

The Pannonian plain is divided into two parts along the Transdanubian Mountains (Hungarian: Dunántúli-középhegység). The northwestern part…and the southeastern part…comprise the following sections:

Note: The Transylvanian Plateau and the Lučenec-Košice Depression (both parts of the Carpathians) and some other lowlands are sometimes also considered part of the Pannonian Plain in non-geomorphological or older divisions.

Regions

Relatively large or distinctive areas of the plain that do not necessarily correspond to national borders include:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/39/Europe_biogeography_countries.svg/2000px-Europe_biogeography_countries.svg.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8e/Centralbalkan.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Pan%C4%8Di%C4%87ev_vrh_during_winter.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0d/Mustila_Arboretum.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5a/Parc_national_Tara_Serbie.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Morava_river2.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/Pontic_Caspian_climate.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f2/Novi_Sad_1920.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/Belianske_Tatry_from_Jah%C5%88aci_%C5%A1t%C3%ADt.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/46/Roh%C3%A1%C4%8De_-_Mas%C3%ADv_Ban%C3%ADkova_%282178%29%2C_Pla%C4%8Div%C3%A9_%282125%29_a_Ostr%C3%A9ho_Roh%C3%A1%C4%8De_%282087%29.JPG

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Oilcape.jpg

Alans

http://www.tryukraine.com/info/images/ukrainemap.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e8/Ottomanbosnia.PNG

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/Pannonian_Basin.svg/2000px-Pannonian_Basin.svg.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/Bosnia_kingdom_in_the_XIV_c.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bb/Roman_Empire_125.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c3/Seljuk_Empire_locator_map.svg/1000px-Seljuk_Empire_locator_map.svg.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f1/Ukok_Plateau.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/NE_600ad.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c3/Seljuk_Empire_locator_map.svg/1000px-Seljuk_Empire_locator_map.svg.png




In contrast to copper and tin, iron is very widely spread as the great archaeologist Gordon Childe put it “cheap iron democratized agriculture and industry and warfare too”. So the jump to Iron Age technology may have impeded the development of states in Africa by making it more difficult for elite to concentrate and monopolize power.

Africa never experienced the nascent period of political centralization that Europe did during the Bronze Age, perhaps also with a path dependent legacy.




As to longitude, I declare that I found so much difficulty in determining it that I was put to great pains to ascertain the east-west distance I had covered. The final result of my labours was that I found nothing better to do than to watch for and take observations at night of the conjunction of one planet with another, and especially of the conjunction of the moon with the other planets….

After I had made experiments many nights, one night, the twenty-third of August 1499, there was a conjunction of the moon with Mars, which according to the almanac was to occur at midnight or a half hour before. I found that…at midnight Mars’s position was three and a half degrees to the east.

Amerigo Vespucci

Good gosh. Can you imagine having travelled so far on the globe—without a swift means of return, of course—that you literally had no idea where you were?

And what’s more, science to save you. You can’t ask anyone around you for the answer. Many of the people around you not only have never heard of Europe, but can’t even conceive of such a thing.

Nobody knows the answer. ∄ books that purport to have the answer. ∄ communication channels back to home. You’re all alone, mentally. To figure out what’s going on all you have to go on is reason and facts. And if you get the answer right, whom are you going to tell?

(Source: Wikipedia)




Confidence is necessary for great civilisations to flourish. Do you hear those last echoes of Empire? This was filmed in 1969 but Kenneth Clark had grown up in another age—a time when Great Britain’s cultural superiority went unquestioned in many huts on the Isles.

  • Minute 13 Christianity eked out an existence for centuries (eg on Skellig)
    image
  • 8:30 Greeks bored with civilisation.
  • 12:15 “I suspect they haven’t given the alternative much thought.”
  • Minute 13. Anglo-saxon poem about gold.
  • gold
  • Drive to create art
  • People must believe in their institutions and culture. hope. finance. What’s valued is what’s valued. Crises of confidence. Bubbles and rashes. Ease of lending / us interest rate. hope / income inequality.
  • Longevity of mayan culture
  • The beauty of the Book of Kells. Imagine you’re illiterate and therefore letters are just shapes to you.
    imageimage
    image
    image
    العربية: عمئمر بن معدكرب هقني ألمقه رأسهمو بعثتر وبألمقه وبذت حميم وبذت بعدن وبودم وبكربئل وبسمهعلي وبعمريم وبيذرحملك …. أي: اهداء عَمّيئّمّر بن مَعديكَرِب إلى ألمَقَه راسُهُمو. بعثتار وبألمقه وبذات حِميَم وبذات بَعدان وبوَد وبكربئيل وبِسَمهُ عَلي وبعَمِّرَيَم وبيَذرّح مَلِك
    imageimage
    Then the “meaningful” words—which we logocentric modern literates focus on, revere, dissect, would seem a meaningless code.
    image
    image
    image
    http://cn1.kaboodle.com/hi/img/b/0/0/51/1/AAAAC9DQdUsAAAAAAFEY-g.jpg?v=1244149432000http://gwydir.demon.co.uk/jo/knots/kells19bl.gifimagecube-interlacing.jpg
    And compare that to other illiterate symbols: the marks of American cowboys.Bench LBox BLazy S LH Swing Reverse SY 6 Quarter CircleK 5 ConnectedReverse 2 Standing NK Bar UHorseshoe DotRocking HO I or Cinch BuckleOx Yoke TWill RogersDouble THalf Circle LBar XD Slash DStriped SThree O RailX Diamond BarFlying UT 4
    image

    Knot of Infinity -Traditional Celtic Wood Carved Knot -Book of Kells -
    The illuminated knots—what we glance at and pass over—would be something you could trip out staring at.

    Which is the more spiritual experience: the doctrine as encoded in sacred strings, or the mystical feeling of following the knot-lines around, and around, and finally—maybe?—comprehending the mystical whole.
  • (Same goes for Islamic art of the period.)
    http://25.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lzif2gFvL21qkwmgko1_1280.png
    The signs above—2-D path segments about the width of a brush—symbols that can be formed with paint on the end of a stick—denote the name of G-d. Do you think that’s G-d’s True Name? Or that it is YHWH? Or JOHANNES? Or OM? Or אֱלֹהִ֔ים? Why should its sound be something that can be formed with a throat and tongue and teeth?

    * I think the essence of the classification of finite groups is more likely a syllable in G-d’s True Name than are these markings.

    * I think the contemplation of a mystical knot has more to do with spirituality than a scholarly discussion of Torah.

    http://islamic-arts.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/E2-sp2-cluster-A4-Darbi_Imam_Arch_lg.jpg

    image



    image
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    Allah, G-d.
    Taken by Taqwa Salah

    image
    image
    image
    image
    quasiperiodic tilings from a 15th-century Uzbekistani madrasa  Yeah, the same quasiperiodic tilings that theoretical physicist Roger Penrose wrote about in the 20th century. The same quasiperiodic tilings that Tony Robbin says are the projections of a high-dimensional cubic lattice onto 2-D.  What now, Christian culture?  ARTICLE IN: Saudi Aramco World, via Artemy KolchinskyPS Saudi Aramco does $233 billion in sales each year. For reference the total value of Facebook is $25b. So Saudi Aramco transacts 9 Facebooks each year. What now, The Social Network?
  • Just one more comment on alphabetic meaning vs deep graphics. Consider these symbols and signs in the context of information theory. We know now (thanks to Claude Shannon, David Huffman, et al.) how to shrink serial streams of predefined signs into a smaller kernel representing the same thing. Likewise we can turn a bitmap representation of a Borromean ring
    image
    into a bitmap—again serial—and reduce it with gzip or lzw. Yet a code to generate the essence of Borromean rings—or a trefoil, or a Celtic knot, or a quasiperiodic map tiling the surface of a 2-manifold shaped like the outside of a mosque—would be much shorter. A vector graphic wouldn’t capture the essence because an ideal rope trefoil could be advanced (modulo [0,"2π")) or laid down messily (modulo diffeomorphisms that respect the topology class).

    So some much simpler representation—something with a pseudocode of a few lines, given definitions of the objects—should correspond to the ideal "way we conceive" the Kelltic illuminated signs. I feel the same way about the words I read and write: ultimately their kernel is much smaller than a LZW-compressed string.

  • Chant. Back to the show.

I find it weird to say "we" just got through by the skin of our teeth. If something else had happened in history, for example Roman culture been forgotten, then a different "we" would be looking back on a different history. What aren’t we looking back on past the veil of Gilgamesh? What if the Chinese—or, gasp!—the Phoenicians, Moors, Berbers, Dravidians, Japanese, Australians, Mongols, Persians, Olmecs, D’mt—had become the dominant culture instead of the Normans? omg! And soon the planet will be only 10% white people!

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/14/Africa_in_400_BC.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b2/Un-eritrea.png
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/74/Silk_route.jpg/800px-Silk_route.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a5/Map_of_the_Periplus_of_the_Erythraean_Sea.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0e/Jutland_Peninsula_map.PNG
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7f/Limes.saxoniae.wmt.png
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d2/Cimbrians_and_Teutons_-_it.png
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Europa_Germanen_50_n_Chr.svg/1000px-Europa_Germanen_50_n_Chr.svg.png

Oh, well. It was shot 50 years ago. Still a good show.

Related. Philip Larkin:

Yet stop I did: in fact I often do,
And always end much at a loss like this,
Wondering what to look for; wondering, too,
When churches will fall completely out of use
...
what remains when disbelief has gone?
Grass, weedy pavement, brambles, buttress, sky,

A shape less recognisable each week,
A purpose more obscure. I wonder who
Will be the last, the very last, to seek
This place for what it was; ...
Some ruin-bibber, randy for antique,
Or Christmas-addict, 
... Or will he be my representative, Bored, uninformed,
...
For, though I've no idea What this accoutred frowsty barn is worth, It pleases me to stand in silence here; A serious house on serious earth it is, ...
And that much never can be obsolete, Since someone will forever be surprising A hunger in himself to be more serious, And gravitating with it to this ground, Which, he once heard, was proper to grow wise in, If only that so many dead lie round.







Europe
Data set:> eurodist                 Athens Barcelona Brussels Calais Cherbourg Cologne CopenhagenBarcelona         3313                                                       Brussels          2963      1318                                             Calais            3175      1326      204                                    Cherbourg         3339      1294      583    460                             Cologne           2762      1498      206    409       785                   Copenhagen        3276      2218      966   1136      1545     760           Geneva            2610       803      677    747       853    1662       1418Gibraltar         4485      1172     2256   2224      2047    2436       3196Hamburg           2977      2018      597    714      1115     460        460Hook of Holland   3030      1490      172    330       731     269        269Lisbon            4532      1305     2084   2052      1827    2290       2971Lyons             2753       645      690    739       789     714       1458Madrid            3949       636     1558   1550      1347    1764       2498Marseilles        2865       521     1011   1059      1101    1035       1778Milan             2282      1014      925   1077      1209     911       1537Munich            2179      1365      747    977      1160     583       1104Paris             3000      1033      285    280       340     465       1176Rome               817      1460     1511   1662      1794    1497       2050Stockholm         3927      2868     1616   1786      2196    1403        650Vienna            1991      1802     1175   1381      1588     937       1455                Geneva Gibraltar Hamburg Hook of Holland Lisbon Lyons MadridBarcelona                                                                   Brussels                                                                    Calais                                                                      Cherbourg                                                                   Cologne                                                                     Copenhagen                                                                  Geneva                                                                      Gibraltar         1975                                                      Hamburg           1118      2897                                            Hook of Holland    895      2428     550                                    Lisbon            1936       676    2671            2280                    Lyons              158      1817    1159             863   1178             Madrid            1439       698    2198            1730    668  1281       Marseilles         425      1693    1479            1183   1762   320   1157Milan              328      2185    1238            1098   2250   328   1724Munich             591      2565     805             851   2507   724   2010Paris              513      1971     877             457   1799   471   1273Rome               995      2631    1751            1683   2700  1048   2097Stockholm         2068      3886     949            1500   3231  2108   3188Vienna            1019      2974    1155            1205   2937  1157   2409                Marseilles Milan Munich Paris Rome StockholmBarcelona                                                   Brussels                                                    Calais                                                      Cherbourg                                                   Cologne                                                     Copenhagen                                                  Geneva                                                      Gibraltar                                                   Hamburg                                                     Hook of Holland                                             Lisbon                                                      Lyons                                                       Madrid                                                      Marseilles                                                  Milan                  618                                  Munich                1109   331                            Paris                  792   856    821                     Rome                  1011   586    946  1476               Stockholm             2428  2187   1754  1827 2707          Vienna                1363   898    428  1249 1209      2105
Multi-dimensional scaling of the distances:
> cmdscale(eurodist)                        [,1]        [,2]Athens           2290.274680  1798.80293Barcelona        -825.382790   546.81148Brussels           59.183341  -367.08135Calais            -82.845973  -429.91466Cherbourg        -352.499435  -290.90843Cologne           293.689633  -405.31194Copenhagen        681.931545 -1108.64478Geneva             -9.423364   240.40600Gibraltar       -2048.449113   642.45854Hamburg           561.108970  -773.36929Hook of Holland   164.921799  -549.36704Lisbon          -1935.040811    49.12514Lyons            -226.423236   187.08779Madrid          -1423.353697   305.87513Marseilles       -299.498710   388.80726Milan             260.878046   416.67381Munich            587.675679    81.18224Paris            -156.836257  -211.13911Rome              709.413282  1109.36665Stockholm         839.445911 -1836.79055Vienna            911.230500   205.93020
Plot
     require(stats)     loc <- cmdscale(eurodist)     rx <- range(x <- loc[,1])     ry <- range(y <- -loc[,2])     plot(x, y, type="n", asp=1, xlab="", ylab="")     abline(h = pretty(rx, 10), v = pretty(ry, 10), col = "light gray")     text(x, y, labels(eurodist), cex=0.8)

Europe

Data set:
> eurodist
                Athens Barcelona Brussels Calais Cherbourg Cologne Copenhagen
Barcelona         3313                                                      
Brussels          2963      1318                                            
Calais            3175      1326      204                                   
Cherbourg         3339      1294      583    460                            
Cologne           2762      1498      206    409       785                  
Copenhagen        3276      2218      966   1136      1545     760          
Geneva            2610       803      677    747       853    1662       1418
Gibraltar         4485      1172     2256   2224      2047    2436       3196
Hamburg           2977      2018      597    714      1115     460        460
Hook of Holland   3030      1490      172    330       731     269        269
Lisbon            4532      1305     2084   2052      1827    2290       2971
Lyons             2753       645      690    739       789     714       1458
Madrid            3949       636     1558   1550      1347    1764       2498
Marseilles        2865       521     1011   1059      1101    1035       1778
Milan             2282      1014      925   1077      1209     911       1537
Munich            2179      1365      747    977      1160     583       1104
Paris             3000      1033      285    280       340     465       1176
Rome               817      1460     1511   1662      1794    1497       2050
Stockholm         3927      2868     1616   1786      2196    1403        650
Vienna            1991      1802     1175   1381      1588     937       1455
                Geneva Gibraltar Hamburg Hook of Holland Lisbon Lyons Madrid
Barcelona                                                                  
Brussels                                                                   
Calais                                                                     
Cherbourg                                                                  
Cologne                                                                    
Copenhagen                                                                 
Geneva                                                                     
Gibraltar         1975                                                     
Hamburg           1118      2897                                           
Hook of Holland    895      2428     550                                   
Lisbon            1936       676    2671            2280                   
Lyons              158      1817    1159             863   1178            
Madrid            1439       698    2198            1730    668  1281      
Marseilles         425      1693    1479            1183   1762   320   1157
Milan              328      2185    1238            1098   2250   328   1724
Munich             591      2565     805             851   2507   724   2010
Paris              513      1971     877             457   1799   471   1273
Rome               995      2631    1751            1683   2700  1048   2097
Stockholm         2068      3886     949            1500   3231  2108   3188
Vienna            1019      2974    1155            1205   2937  1157   2409
                Marseilles Milan Munich Paris Rome Stockholm
Barcelona                                                  
Brussels                                                   
Calais                                                     
Cherbourg                                                  
Cologne                                                    
Copenhagen                                                 
Geneva                                                     
Gibraltar                                                  
Hamburg                                                    
Hook of Holland                                            
Lisbon                                                     
Lyons                                                      
Madrid                                                     
Marseilles                                                 
Milan                  618                                 
Munich                1109   331                           
Paris                  792   856    821                    
Rome                  1011   586    946  1476              
Stockholm             2428  2187   1754  1827 2707         
Vienna                1363   898    428  1249 1209      2105

Multi-dimensional scaling of the distances:

> cmdscale(eurodist)
                        [,1]        [,2]
Athens           2290.274680  1798.80293
Barcelona        -825.382790   546.81148
Brussels           59.183341  -367.08135
Calais            -82.845973  -429.91466
Cherbourg        -352.499435  -290.90843
Cologne           293.689633  -405.31194
Copenhagen        681.931545 -1108.64478
Geneva             -9.423364   240.40600
Gibraltar       -2048.449113   642.45854
Hamburg           561.108970  -773.36929
Hook of Holland   164.921799  -549.36704
Lisbon          -1935.040811    49.12514
Lyons            -226.423236   187.08779
Madrid          -1423.353697   305.87513
Marseilles       -299.498710   388.80726
Milan             260.878046   416.67381
Munich            587.675679    81.18224
Paris            -156.836257  -211.13911
Rome              709.413282  1109.36665
Stockholm         839.445911 -1836.79055
Vienna            911.230500   205.93020

Plot

     require(stats)
     loc <- cmdscale(eurodist)
     rx <- range(x <- loc[,1])
     ry <- range(y <- -loc[,2])
     plot(x, y, type="n", asp=1, xlab="", ylab="")
     abline(h = pretty(rx, 10), v = pretty(ry, 10), col = "light gray")
     text(x, y, labels(eurodist), cex=0.8)


hi-res