My interpretation of [Leland Wilkinson’s] grammar [of statistical graphics]:

Data is the most important thing, and the thing that you bring to the table.

—Geometric objects … what you actually see on the plot: points, lines, polygons, etc.

Statistics transform the data in many useful ways. For example, binning and counting to create a histogram….

—Scales map values in the data space to values in an aesthetic space, whether it be colour, or size, or shape. Scales also provide an inverse mapping: a legend.

—A coordinate system describes how data coordinates are mapped to the plane of the graphic. It also provides axes and gridlines to make it possible to read the graph.

— A facetting, or conditioning, specification…. to reproduce the same plot for different subsets of the data. The facetting specification describes those subsets and how the facets should be arranged in to a plot.

Hadley Wickham

(Source: had.co.nz)

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