i.e., you can measure the changes in an entire region by simply measuring what passes in and out of the boundaries of the region.
"Stuff passing through a boundary ∂" could be:
- tigers through a conservation zone (2-D)
- sodium ions through a biological cell (3-D)
- magnetic flux through a toroidal fusion chamber
- water through a reservoir (but you’d have to measure evaporation, rain, dew/condensation, and ground seepage in order to get all of ∂V)
- in the other direction, you could measure ∫water upstream and downstream in a river (no tributaries in between) and infer the net amount of water that was drunk, evaporated, or seeped
- probability mass through a set of possibilities
- particulate pollution through "greater Los Angeles"
- ¿ ideas through your head ? ¿ electrical impulses through your brain ? ¿ feelings through your soul over time ?
- ¿ notes through a symphonic orchestra ?
- chromium(VI) through a human body
- smoke or steam through an industrial cooling tower or smokestack
- imports and exports through an economy
- goods or cash through a limited liability company
Said in words, the observation that you can measure change within an entire region by just measuring all of its boundaries sounds obvious, even trivial. Said symbolically, Gauß’ discovery amounts to a nifty tradeoff between boundaries ∂ and gradients ∇. (The gradient ∇ is the net amount of a flow: flow in direction 1 plus flow in orthogonal direction 2 plus flow in mutually orthogonal direction 3 plus…) It also amounts to a connection between 2-D and 3-D.
Because of Cartan-style differential geometry, we know that the connection is much more general: 1-D shapes bound 2-D shapes, 77-D shapes bound 78-D shapes, and so on.
Nice one, Fred.